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But now all is changed: natural phenomena have been explained as being but the operation of regular laws; so has mechanical manipulation been explained as consisting in the application of general principles, not yet fully understood, but far enough, so that the apprentice may with a substantial education, good reasoning powers, and determined effort, force his way where once it had to be begged. The amount of special knowledge in mechanical manipulation, that which is irregular and modified by special conditions, is continually growing less as generalisation and improvement go on..
As to the shades that appear in drawing temper, or tempering it is sometimes called, it is quite useless to repeat any of the old rules about "straw colour, violet, orange, blue," and so on; the learner knows as much after such instruction as before. The shades of temper must be seen to be learned, and as no one is likely to have use for such knowledge before having opportunities to see tempering performed, the following plan is suggested for learning the different shades. Procure eight pieces of cast steel about two inches long by one inch wide and three-eighths of an inch thick, heat them to a high red heat and drop them into a salt bath; preserve one without tempering to show the white shade of extreme hardness, and polish one side of each of the remaining seven pieces; then give them to an experienced workman to be drawn to seven varying shades of temper ranging from the white piece to the dark blue colour of soft steel. On the backs of these pieces labels can be pasted describing the technical names of the shades and the general uses to which tools of corresponding hardness are adapted..
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These remarks upon hammers are not introduced here as a matter of curiosity, nor with any intention of following mechanical principles beyond where they will explain actual manipulation, but as a means of directing attention to percussive acting machines generally, with which forging processes, as before explained, have an intimate connection.!
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Judged upon theoretical grounds, and leaving out the mechanical conditions of operation, it would at once be conceded that a proper plan would be to move the lightest body; that is, if the tools and their attachments were heavier than the material to be acted upon, then the material should be moved for the cutting action, and vice versa. But in practice there are other conditions to be considered more important than a question of the relative weight of reciprocating parts; and it must be remembered that in solving any problem pertaining to machine action, the conditions of operation are to be considered first and have precedence over problems of strain, arrangement, or even the general principles of construction; that is, the conditions of operating must form a base from which proportions, arrangements, and so on, must be deduced. A standard planing machine, such as is employed for most kinds of work, is arranged with a running platen or carriage upon which the material is fastened and traversed beneath the cutting tools. [130] The uniformity of arrangement and design in machines of this kind in all countries wherever they are made, must lead to the conclusion that there are substantial reasons for employing running platens instead of giving a cutting movement to the tools..

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Machines are composed of parts connected together by rigid and movable joints; rigid joints are necessary because of the expense, and in most cases the impossibility, of constructing framing and other fixed detail in one piece.
21 August, 2019 - 13:08
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21 August, 2019 - 13:08
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